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11 September 2019

Reduced masticatory efficiency in patients with periodontitis: data from an electromyographic study

Lara Figini


The main purpose of dental treatment is to prevent tooth loss and aid in maintaining the functions of the stomatognathic system. However, the maintenance of teeth with reduced bone support can affect the sensory function of the periodontal attachment and reduce the stability of mechanical support for the teeth, which can consequently impair the process of mastication. Masticatory function depends on the relationship between the jaw elevator muscles and bite force, and extrinsic factors such as the texture of a food and the amount of food used in each masticatory cycle. Therefore, it is relevant to evaluate an individual’s bite force because the adaptation of the intensity of the bite force and the hardness of the food depend on the information from the periodontal mechanoreceptors, which is reduced in individuals with periodontal impairment.  

MATERIALS AND METHODS
In a study published on February 2019 International Journal of Health Science, the authors evaluated the effect of periodontitis on the efficiency of the masticatory cycle and the maximum bite force.
Twenty-four individuals were divided into two groups: With periodontitis (Group I; mean age ± standard deviation (SD), 51.3 ± 2.8 years; n = 12) and without periodontitis (Group II; mean age ± SD, 48.9 ± 2.4 years; n = 12). Masticatory cycle efficiency was obtained from the value of the ensemble-averaged integrated linear envelope electromyographic signal of the masseter and temporalis muscles. Maximum bite force was recorded for the right and left molar regions. The data were tabulated and submitted to statistical analysis (P ≤ 0.05).      

RESULTS
There was a significant difference between the groups for the left masseter muscle when chewing raisins (P = 0.04), peanuts (P = 0.02), and biocapsules (P = 0.01). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated the influence of dental mobility on masticatory cycle efficiency for peanuts (P = 0.03) and biocapsules (P = 0.01). The maximum bite force for the left molar region was significantly different between the groups (P = 0.02). Dental mobility was a variable that had a greater effect on masticatory cycle efficiency. The periodontitis group had a reduced bite force.     

CONCLUSIONS       
From the data obtained from this study, which have to be confirmed with other similar studies, it can be concluded that the loss of periodontal support has a negative impact on the efficiency of the masticatory cycle and on the bite force. 
Performing periodontal treatments to minimize tooth mobility is important to maintaining oral health and to improving masticatory efficiency and bite force in individuals with periodontal disease. 


For additional informations: 
Alterations in masticatory cycle efficiency and bite force in individuals with periodontitis.

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